MPL Thunder Road Author and Small Business Rally

Maynardville Public Library 296 Main St Maynardville,TN 37807
Event Date: 
03/21/2020 - 9:00am to 1:00pm

Due to the amount of cancellations we have received, we will be cancelling the event on Saturday March 21, 2020. The library will be open as usual for anyone needing to come in, but the event will not be happening. We are sorry for the inconvenience and hope everyone stays safe and healthy!

Maynardville Public Library is very pleased to announce we will be joining our Small Business Expo and Thunder Road Author Rally together! We will be hosting ‎Thunder Road Author and Small Business Rally two times a year, one in spring and one in fall. Right now we are accepting applications for our spring event which will be held on March 21st 2020.

If you would like to participate in the event as an Author or Small Business Owner, please fill out this form:



Drive-in church accommodates social distancing

The coronavirus, or COVID -19, has impacted the lives of all Americans.
Many are out of work or working from home. Children are being taught by their parents, online by their teachers, and sometimes a combination of both. Many businesses have been ordered to temporarily suspend some or all of the services they offer. Sporting events have been cancelled. Proms, graduations, and many special events have been rescheduled.

Commission's Budget & Finance Committee denies chamber request

Mayor Jason Bailey outlined a formula to fund the Chamber of Commerce at the March meeting of the Union County Budget and Finance Committee. Bailey related that he and chamber president Thomas Skibinski had formulated a workable plan using the hotel/motel tax.

Coronavirus, contracts, curriculum addressed at March board meeting

In opening announcements, Dr. Jimmy Carter addressed the current novel coronavirus concern and stated that if school is canceled for an extended period due to the novel coronavirus/Covid-19, students will be issued Chromebooks loaded with two weeks of assignments that teachers are already developing.
Chromebooks and any other educational materials would be issued before spring break.

The Local Emergency Planning Committee is ready

Dana Simerly pictured with Wally Wise Guy

Dana Simerly pictured with Wally Wise Guy

On March 19, Dana Simerly, director of Union County’s Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC), offered details regarding how they are prepared to address pandemics such as we are currently facing with COVID-19.

Carl Smith - from Union County to Mr. Country - Part 1

Country Connections
by James and Ellen Perry
As March 15, 1923, came, the Doc and Ina Smith family had no notion of what was to transpire in a short 23 years, and how their family would be impacted by the birth this day of their only son after bearing and raising five girls. The name given to this baby boy born on this day, just a short walk north of Maynardville, Tennessee, was Carl Milton Smith.

Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes

Dr. Darrell Johnson

Nagging pain should not be ignored. If you have persistent neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back, hip, knee or foot pain, chances are great that Darrell Johnson, D.C., and his chiropractic team can help.
In a candid interview, Dr. Johnson shared his experience of discovering chiropractic care, studying in New York, interning in Canada, and starting a practice and providing chiropractic care for his neighbors here in Union County.

Non-pharmacologic treatment for chronic lower back pain also improves sleep

Yoga and physical therapy (PT) are effective approaches to treating co-occurring sleep disturbance and back pain while reducing the need for medication, according to a new study published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.
The research showed significant improvements in sleep quality lasting 52 weeks after 12 weeks of yoga classes or 1-on-1 PT, which suggests a long-term benefit of these non- pharmacologic approaches.

Growing Tomatoes Part I: Intro and Site Selection

Photographed by Shannon DeWitt, UT Extension Agent Union County

Written by: Natalie Bumgarner and Anthony Carver, University of Tennessee Extension Agents
Submitted by: Shannon DeWitt, UT Extension Union County Agent
As the most popular crop grown by home gardeners in Union County, tomatoes are certainly king of the garden. This is definitely because of the number of participating gardeners, but it is also due to gardeners’ passion about their home-grown tomatoes.

The spirit of fear: Part 2

By Archie Wilson
Almost one year ago to the day, I sat at my computer and typed an article entitled “The Spirit of Fear.” Nearly 2,000 years ago, the Apostle Paul sat in a Roman prison and penned the following words:
2 Timothy 1:7 KJV
(7) For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.

Monkey Bread

This recipe is so easy it seems a shame to even write it down. Refrigerator biscuits are what make it easy. Turned out in front of your family on a large plate will make you the star baker at your house. Have plenty of hot coffee ready to pour and this sugary breakfast treat will be a hit.

Don't Slob on Your Dipper

Last week I wrote Part One of a story I hope you found to be enjoyable. I promised to write the second part this week, but other inspiration in light of COVID-19 has come to my mind.
When I was a young boy, my father was friends with Earn Hendrix, a blind gentleman who lived with his elderly mother on Dotson Creek, very close to my Great-Aunt Minnie and Uncle Jim Yadon. Aunt Minnie was sister to my grandfather Charlie Sampson.

Attack of the lady bugs

For several years we have had to endure a home invasion of ladybugs that are determined to make themselves bothersome houseguests, and this year is particularly bad. They are beneficial creatures, feeding on other bugs that damage farm crops. But indoors they drive you nuts buzzing around lights, dive bombing into drinks, and smelling bad.

Oklahoma City 25 years ago

Part of the Memorial with the Survivor Tree and the pool.

It has been almost 25 years since the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. While this is not a Tennessee event, it is something that should not be forgotten. At 9:02 a.m., on April 19th, 1995, a U-Haul truck, parked in front of the building, exploded, tearing apart the entire front of the multi-storied structure. The explosion killed 168 people, including 19 children. Almost 700 people were injured. Many other buildings were either damaged or destroyed. The face of downtown Oklahoma City was changed forever . . . and so were her people.

District attorney general offices to extend suspension of in-office visitation

In an effort to prevent further transmission of COVID-19 and consistent with State of Tennessee Executive Orders by Governor Bill Lee, all offices of the Eighth Judicial District Attorney General will be closed to in-office visitors through April 30, 2020. However, all offices will remain staffed and operational during this time. If you need the assistance of any of our offices, please contact us at the appropriate number listed below:

Good Show with a Good Spirit

Primitive Quartet

Primitive Quartet

The annual Lions Club fundraiser was a successful worship service, despite the looming fear of COVID-19 (coronavirus) having cases in Tennessee. The Primitive Quartet headlined, supported by local bands County Line and Won in Hymn, and an audience of roughly 500. Being described as a “good show with a good spirit” the Primitive Quartet looks forward to the second Saturday in March each year and performing in Union County in support of the local Lions Club and their efforts to provide vision and hearing assistance to those in need.

Common Sense Steps to Prevent Coronavirus Disease

Concerns about the coronavirus and COVID-19, the respiratory illness it causes, are on the rise. Coronavirus exposure risk remains low for most people in the U.S. Those concerned about the spread of the virus want to plan ahead for prevention. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the best way to prevent illness is to avoid exposure. You can protect yourself and prevent the spread of the virus to others by following a few common-sense steps.

Grass Tetany Prevention and Treatment for Cattle

Spring with its green pastures is the time of year that cattle long for at the end of a long winter. These grasses will be lush and your cows will tear a fence down to get on these pastures, but these grasses also will be full of moisture and potentially diluted of minerals. This can lead to a condition known as grass tetany.

A Response to the COVID Calamity

Greetings all! Because of the unprecedented situation we are in right now, I’m announcing a price change on all the books in my catalog that are available as ebooks. This new price will stay in effect at least through the end of April and as much longer as needed. All of my ebooks are now $.99; this includes the novels "Tango" and "Rock, Paper, Scissors," the short works "Journey" and "Glimpses," and all three books in the Boone series. The links are on my website; look for the catalog page.

The most commonly recommended complementary health approach: chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation

A new study shows that more than half of office-based physicians in the U.S. recommended at least one complementary health approach (CHA) to their patients during the previous 12 months, with female physicians more likely to recommend a CHA than male physicians.


We seasonally have a pair of bluebirds build a nest under the eve of our house that I allow because I enjoy having them around. They are pretty creatures with an appetite for insect pests. The first sighting of bluebirds is considered a sign of Spring.

Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) are easily identified by their sky-blue back and rusty colored throat and breast (they are cousins to the robins). Females are not as brightly colored as males. The birds are most often seen sitting on an isolated perch or hunting for insects on the ground.

A Child Shall Lead

Oh, Lord, please help me get there before it’s too late. This and many similar thoughts swam through the nearly delirious Della Maude’s mind as she struggled through the thick brown bed of fallen leaves. She stumbled many times and would have fallen had it not been for the support and steadying hand of her husband’s niece, Bella.

Which One What?

There’s a disease we all have, but some of us have it more severe than others. It’s known as Selectedhearingitus.

Here’s an example of its effects on my husband Tim. I’ll ask him, “Do you want green beans or pinto beans for supper?” He’ll give me the short answer, “Yep.” To which I reply, “Yep to which one?” Then he gives me his classic response, “Which one what?”

I guess you can say that I’m the one who truly suffers from it since Tim’s responses drive me crazy. Over the years, I have wondered if he does it sometimes just to have fun and aggravate me.


Putting Tennessee Goodness in a Jar

Canned turkey and canned sweet pickle rings.

The second part of growing a yard-full of fruit and vegetables is preserving them. Again, I have to thank my parents for that knowledge as well as for the love of gardening. Mom and Dad canned everything from fish to salsa. When Mom got sick, Dad took the reins. He had a steam juicer to make juice for jellies, a strainer to make puree, huge pots and small ones. (I recently found a small Presto cooker at a Goodwill and packed it in my suitcase when I flew home.) Then there is the pressure canner. I had a big yellow one that I used so much the bottom became slightly rounded.

Glazed Salmon

When I see a reasonable price on fresh salmon fillets, I snap them up. Fresh salmon enjoys companionship with several fruits. Pineapple is a favorite of mine. You can find pineapple juice in small 6 ounce cans on the grocery shelf. Try this recipe. You might use it when you have a special guest. It is fancy and good.

1/3 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup unsweetened pineapple juice
2 tablespoons soy sauce
4 salmon fillets, 6 ounces each

What You Need to Know About Social Distancing, Self-quarantine and Self-isolation

Social Distancing

Social distancing is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to limit the spread of coronavirus. Social distancing means avoiding close contact with others (keeping a distance of 6 feet or more), avoiding crowds, and suspending social practices, like shaking hands. Individuals can practice social distancing by avoiding places and events where keeping a 6-foot distance from others is unlikely or impossible. Organizations support social distancing when large gatherings are cancelled to slow virus spread.

Chiropractic Education

The typical applicant at a chiropractic college has already acquired four years of pre-medical undergraduate college education, including courses in biology, inorganic and organic chemistry, physics, psychology and related lab work. Once accepted into an accredited chiropractic college, the requirements become even more demanding—four to five academic years of professional study are the standard. Because of the hands-on nature of chiropractic, and the intricate adjusting techniques, a significant portion of time is spent in clinical training.

Transplanting Trees Requires a Game Plan

There are occasions when you need to move a tree or shrub from one place to another, or perhaps you want to try your hand at moving a tree from the wild to your landscape. Successful transplanting requires planning, patience, and work.

Rat Chips

“I want some rat chips Momma!”

My mom and I both were speechless. We had just walked by a vending machine. In fact, I probably wouldn’t have noticed it if Sara wasn’t pointing toward it and calling out, “I want some rat chips.”

“What in the world is she talking about?” Mom asked me.

I shrugged. “I have no idea.”

“I want some rat chips Momma!”


Scavenger Hunt

The date is Monday, March 16, 2020. As I write this article, the county, state, nation and world is in a state of unrest due to Coronavirus. Today the U. S. Stock Market took its sharpest dive since 1987, when Ronald Reagan was president. Amazing to me, especially as it was just a few days ago that it showed a dramatic one day increase! This is just evidence of how fast things change in an uncertain and fearful world.


Lovely summer potatoes. Pictures courtesy of Pixabay.

I have a love/hate relationship with plants. Don’t get me wrong, I love plants, flowers, trees, and bushes. Flora beautifies the earth all seasons of the year.

When my dad was stationed in Germany for two years, we always made a trip to the Netherlands in the spring. We visited fields of tulips, hyacinths, and daffodils. They were absolutely gorgeous. When we returned to the states and Dad retired, he had multiple orders of bulbs waiting for him in Utah.

Marinated Mozzarella

I first sampled this treat at a party long ago. Mozzarella cheese doesn't have a whole lot of flavor unless you gussy it up. This recipe does. Add it to your hors d'oeurves tray for your next get-together. Even if you don't use sun-dried tomatoes very often, they will keep in your fridge for quite a while. They are great in pasta or potato salads.

Hashbrown Sausage Bake

In years past, buying refrigerated shredded potatoes would have been an unacceptable luxury for this cash-strapped housewife. I don't even think they were available back in the day. Heck, refrigerators were still in the “gosh, what a luxury” category. Frozen french fries were unheard of and who would consider buying individual baking potatoes? My, how times have changed. You might already have a favorite hashbrown recipe, but if you don't, here is mine.

Hydroponics and Aquaponics Come to Horace Maynard Middle School via TVA STEM Grant

Pictured above: Ashley Walker (TVA), Paula Deaver, Gregory Clay (HMMS Principal), Leslye Hartsell (KUB), David Burk, and in the background: Dr. Jimmy Carter ( Union County School Superintendent)

Horace Maynard Middle School (HMMS) received a grant of $2,500 from the Tennessee Valley Authority, in partnership with Bicentennial Volunteers Incorporated for a STEM (science, technology, education, and math) education project.

Support HMMS Hygiene Closet

Horace Maynard Middle School Hygiene Closet

Maynardville is a community that is strong in pulling together its resources for the overall benefit of one another. Children come first and most anyone will reach out to help when there is a child in need.

Throughout the county, there are clothes closets, backpack programs, food pantries and so many more resources for the times when they are needed. Many students rely on these alternative assets as their supply source for the month.

Moonshining In Union County

As we all probably know, Union County, and the rest of Appalachia for that matter, has a long history with moonshining. In fact, Maynardville's own main street and Highway 33 is called Thunder Road in recognition of its bootlegging past- the moonshine "pipeline" between Middlesboro and Knoxville. I was born on Thunder Road in the back of my grandfather's car, but that's another story. If we look back at our history, even to colonial times and the earliest habitation by European settlers, distilled spirits have been produced by mountain people, both legal and illicit.

I did it!

I knew better than to try it, but I did anyway. My husband Tim even said, “I knew you should’ve stayed outside.”

Where in the world were we? Standing inside the Saint Augustine lighthouse.

We were on their ghost tour. As you all know, I don’t go on ghost tours to see ghosts. I go because I love stories and history. And with Saint Augustine being the oldest European settlement in North America, it is full of rich and even tragic stories.

Reality . . . What’s That?

I still have the first dictionary I ever owned. Ms. Wanza Sharp gave it to me in fourth grade. It was missing both front and back covers, and the first and last few pages were missing. I still have it safely tucked away in my home library archives. The dictionary is precious because it was one of the first books I ever owned, and Ms. Wanza, one of my all-time heroes both in and out of the classroom, gave it to me. Also, I spent many a day playing school with that wonderful volume.

ST. Patrick's Day Long Ago

My father kept postcards from his childhood. I found them after he passed away. I never knew they existed until then. He was born in 1899 in Sandstone
Township of Jackson County, Michigan It was a different time. Dad would have been horrified to see how this old world is turning nowadays. It was a gentler time. Boys on the farm didn't have the distractions that abound now.

Choosing Healthy Nursery Trees

Spring approaches, and with it will come the itch to get your fingernails dirty and plant stuff. Landscaping adds beauty and value to the home, so it’s a good investment, and you always want your investments to do well, so choosing healthy plants is important. Here are some guidelines:

Molded Lemon - Beet Salad

I like beets just about any way you can fix them. Fresh ones, topped and cooking in boiling salted water taste the best. Then peel them, slice them and top with butter and some of the warmed water they were cooked in. Everyone I know likes them fancied up. This is a fancied up recipe. Good, too. Please forgive me for using canned beets. Fresh ones aren't always available.

Red Devils Baseball Win Opener

Maddix Wyrick’s walk-off was a picture perfect ending in Horace Maynard’s victory over Claiborne Bulldogs. Horace Maynard took Tuesday’s game in dramatic fashion, with a 3-2 walk-off with Claiborne Bulldogs. The game was tied at two with Horace Maynard battling the bottom of the sixth with an error and a fielders choice led to the winning run for Horace Maynard. The pitching was strong on both sides, Horace Maynard pitcher struck out ten, while Josh Cinnamon sat down five.

Melissa Stevens: The Illustrated Author

Melissa Stevens

In the literary world, a catchy title or risqué focus may draw the eye of an interested reader, but have you ever thought about how influenced one may be by elegantly designed book cover art? Melissa Stevens saw the need for such involved illustrations in forums in the mid-2000s.

Melissa, who is an Anderson County native, is the owner and operator of a thriving graphic design and illustration business, Illustrated Author Design Services. She began in 2011, working with a small press.

Scouting Scholarship Fundraiser

The fundraising event was kicked off at 11:30 with the Pledge of Allegiance, the Scout Oath, and the Scout Law; led by Webelo Caleb Demetroff and Den Chief Tristin Luebke pictured above.

The Boy Scouts of America has been teaching patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues to America’s youth for more than 100 years. It is an organization that children have been proud and happy to join for generations. Believing that scouting is a tradition worth supporting, local Cub Scout Pack 401 is raising money to build a scholarship fund to ensure no child is excluded from scouting due to the family’s inability to pay. This is a new project for the Pack to address a new need.

March is Extension Month

FCS/4-H Extension Agent Alyshia Victoria, Extension Program Assistant Beth Bergeron, 2019 Extension Intern Allison Rison, Ag/4-H Extension Agent & County Director Shannon DeWitt, UT Extension Eastern Region David Yates, Extension Administrative Assistant Ashley Mike and Chamber of Commerce President Thomas Skibinski

UT Extension provides a gateway to the University of Tennessee as the outreach unit of the Institute of Agriculture. With an office in every Tennessee county, UT Extension delivers educational programs and research-based information to citizens throughout the state. In cooperation with Tennessee State University, UT Extension works with farmers, families, youth and communities to improve lives by addressing problems and issues at the local, state and national levels.
Extension Month:

Why is good posture important?

Good posture helps us stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions that place the least strain on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement and weight-bearing activities. The benefits of correct posture are as follows:

• Helps us keep bones and joints in correct alignment so that our muscles are used correctly, decreasing the abnormal wearing of joint surfaces that could result in degenerative arthritis and joint pain.

• Reduces the stress on the ligaments holding the spinal joints together, minimizing the likelihood of injury.

Pioneers and Butterflies

For those of you who don’t know my mother, I like to call her: “Ms. Pioneer.” She would have preferred to live in the pioneer days instead of today.

When I was still living at home, our water heater went out. Before it was repaired, my mother ran water in the tub and then marched into the kitchen. “I’m going to take a bath like the pioneers did.” She politely ran water in a large bowl and stuck it in the microwave. “I’m gonna pour hot water in the tub.”

Aging and Lent

Traditionally, Lent is seen as a time of sacrifice, of giving up something. Some people give up chocolate, or drinking alcohol, or fast food; I met a young woman last week who was fasting for Lent. I didn’t get a chance to ask her what kind of fast it was, but at our small group meeting and potluck the only thing she had was water. For the last couple of years I’ve given up social media for Lent, and it has been surprisingly easy to do.

The CCC In Union County Part 7

Continuing from "From Hearth And Hoe": " In October, 1935, TVA Camps 7, 13, 16, 19, and 22, for example, were engaged in soil erosion projects and special work on TVA lands. Three 110-foot steel fire towers were erected. Camp TVA-13 constructed a stone masonry fish dam on Stiner Branch. The dam, 30 feet high and 145 feet long, created a lake used by TVA's Fish and Game division to raise fish. Camp TVA-16, consisting of about 206 young men, mostly from East Tennessee, was organized at Sharp's Chapel on August 15, 1935.


Lucille Cate Loop

Lucille Cate Loop-age 88 of Corryton went home to be with her Lord Tuesday, April 7, 2020. She was a member of Atkins Baptist Church. She was a loving wife, mother, grandmother, great-grandmother and great-great-grandmother. Preceded in death by her devoted and loving husband of 62 years, Earl Loop; grandson, Shane Smith; grandmother, “Momma” Maggie Underwood; parents, Authur and Dela Mae Woolard Cate; brothers, Paul, Roy, Harold, D. F., Cecil and J. L. Cate; sister, Trula Ann Cate.

Paris C. Keck

Paris C. Keck-age 62 of Maynardville went to be with the Lord Friday, April 3, 2020 at his home. He was saved at Mount Olive Baptist Church. He was a jack of all trades and currently an employee of Williams Tractors, Maynardville. Paris was a gentle soul, Kind-hearted and loved by all who knew him. Preceded in death by father, W. T. Keck; brother, Danny Keck; sisters, Lisa Sweet and Tina Smith.

J. C. Cox

Jesse Clive “J. C.” Cox-age 75 of Sharps Chapel passed away peacefully Friday, April 3, 2020 at his home in Maynardville. He enjoyed gardening, building furniture and spending time with his family. He is preceded in death by son, Anthony Dale Cox; parents, Sillis and Ollie Cox; four brothers, three sisters.

Corporal Tyler Dwight Beeler, U. S. Marines

Corporal Tyler Dwight Beeler (U. S. Marine Corps)-age 24 of Washburn and Oak Ridge, born August 8, 1995 passed away suddenly Sunday, March 22, 2020 in Beaufort, South Carolina where he was stationed with the Marine Corps. He had professed faith in Jesus Christ. Tyler was former employee of Lowes Home Improvement, Knoxville and was a graduate of Washburn High School, class of 2014. Throughout Corporal Beeler’s Marine career, he was stationed at many locations around the world; including Japan, Thailand, Norway as well as the U. S.

Floyd Earl Ridenour

Floyd Earl Ridenour-age 75 of Maynardville passed away Wednesday, April 1, 2020 at his home. He is a veteran of the Vietnam War and retired from the U. S. Army in 2002 as a Sergeant First Class. He was a Christian and had been baptized. Preceded in death by parents, Plumer and Lydia (Snodderly) Ridenour.

Survivors: wife of 50 years, Jennifer N. (Smith) Ridenour; daughter, Feleica Ridenour; grandson, Zachary Bridges, all of Maynardville; son, Jeff Ridenour of Knoxville; brother, John Paul Ridenour of Halls; sister, Wanda Faye Bruner of Maynardville. Several nieces and nephews.

Sharon Dykes

Sharon Ann Dykes – 68 of Sharps Chapel, went home to be with the Lord Tuesday, March 31, 2020. She was a member of Blue Springs Baptist Church. Sharon loved to quilt and make handmade crafts.

She is preceded in death by her father, Herbert Lynch and niece, Marnie Graham. Sharon is survived by her husband, Warren Dykes; children, Todd (Rená) and Trevor Dykes; mother, Velma Lynch; sister, Kay (A. C.) Tolliver; and mother-in-law, Maggie Dykes.

Evaline Jessee

Evaline J. Jessee, age 86 of Morning Pointe in Tullahoma and formerly of Union County, Tennessee passed away on Tuesday March 31, 2020 at Tennova Healthcare - Harton in Tullahoma. Mrs. Jessee was born on September 19, 1933 in Hawkins County, Tennessee to the late Daniel Craft and Elsie Barrett Jeter. She was a University of Tennessee graduate with a Bachelors degree in Home Economics, and worked as a third grade teacher at Maynardville Elementary for over 30 years. She was a member of Delta Kappa Gamma and the Union County Retired Teachers.

Ginger Juanita (Johnson) Bailey

Ginger Juanita (Johnson) Bailey-age 68 of LaFollette passed away suddenly Monday, March 30, 2020 at her home. She was a retired employee of Davidson County Sheriff’s Department. Preceded in death by parents, Lewis and Nita Johnson; sister, Connie Cassiano.

Survivors: daughter, Tiffany Fox and husband, David of Clinton; grandson, Drew Fox and wife, Jessie of Cleveland, TN, great-granddaughter, Brelynn Fox; granddaughter, Grace Fox of Clinton; brothers, Larry and Tommy Johnson, both of Nashville.

Tamera Jean Raley

Tamera Jean Raley-age 59 of Maynardville, born July 4th 1960 passed away Sunday evening March 29th 2020. She is survived by her Mother-Shirley Raley, Daughter- Ashley Harmon, Granddaughter -Delia Lane Harmon, Sister -Debra Tharp, Brother-Daniel Raley,